Posts Tagged ‘ubuntu’

I’m a bit stressed for time, so i’ll keep this nice and short. The whole article will be a series of points.

  • Almost ALL bind config files are basic text files.
  • Spaces and special ending characters are VERY important.
  • Serial numbers within the files (you will see shortly) do NOT effect greatly, but it is best practice to keep them in order.
  • Serial numbers SHOULD be incremented everytime you edit the file
  • Forward lookup files are usually stored in /etc/bind
  • Naming of the file should be [domain-name].db  for example: geekdomain.db, google.db
Here’s a Sample forward lookup file:  (Note, all lines starting with ; are comments)

; As a basic RULE, all config files HAVE to start with the SOA (Start Of Authority) line.
; The SOA tells us which server is the Authoritative DNS server for this domain. If this is your ONLY DNS server, this will be your Authoritative server. Lets di-sect the stuff within the ().
; The serial number, is a number representing which version this file is. The numbering convention is upto the admin. We normally type the serial number as date & time. For example,
; if we edit this file on the 17th of May 2011, we will number it 20110517. If you want you can put the time in there as well. You must remember to change this number everytime you make any
; change to the file. 
; The next line tells us the refresh rate.  The numbers are in seconds. Hence 3600 gives us a refresh time of 1 hour
; The next line tells us the retry rate. Again, the numbers are in seconds.
; The Next line tells us the expiry time.
; The next line is the minimum time.
    ; Alot of people get confused by this first line. It's simply; @ IN SOA(Saying this server is the SOA) (with the @ sign replaces by a . )
    @ IN SOA geek.domain.  admin.geek.domain. (
	20110517	; Serial number
	3600		; 1 hour refresh
	300		; 5 minutes retry
	172800		; 2 days expiry
	43200 )		; 12 hours minimum

; List of Name servers in this domain. It MIGHT be a good idea to also have your ISP's DNS server in here.
	IN NS		geek.domain.
	IN NS		isp.geek.domain.gk.

; List all MX (Mail exchange) records here!
	IN MX		mail.geek.domain.

; List all your other servers and machines here
    web.geek.domain.            IN A   ; Web Server
    fileserver.geek.domain.     IN A   ; File Server
    machine1.geek.domain.       IN A   ; Windows XP machine

; Alias names
    www	        IN CNAME	web.geek.domain.
    ftp		IN CNAME	fileserver.geek.domain.
    printer	IN CNAME	fileserver.geek.domain.

How to fit all this in with your Bind server (If you came here from my other tutorial):

Goto /etc/bind
Create a text file there named [domain-name].db  for example: geekdomain.db
Type in (or copy paste & edit) the above code according to your needs.
Save the file.
Restart Bind:
/etc/init.d/bind9 restart

How to test if your look up tables are working.

In bash type in :
for example:
nslookup fileserver.geek.domain

We need:

  1. One Vanilla Installation of Ubuntu 10.0 (any version should still work fine)
  2. Machine with enough hard disk space (i used about 10gb for a NON-production testing only machine)
  3. A working internet connection

Lets get started.

*quick note, i have a GUI installed in this box (XFCE) this is absolutly NOT necessary (and most of the time NOT recommended for actual servers)

Set up your Server’s Hostname properly:

to view your current hostname: cat /etc/hostname

cat is a util used to print text out to standard out from a text file. /etc/hostname is where the hostname of the computer is stored.

Viewing Hostname

How to View your Hostname

To set a Host-name simply:

echo “YOUR-HOST-NAME-HERE” > /etc/hostname

echo is a program to repeat what you types into standard out. The “>” sign is for porting information in linux. Here we port that information into the file “/etc/hostname”

How to set the Host-name in your Computer

Setting a custom host-name in your Computer

Set your Domain preferences:

to view your current settings:    cat /etc/resolv.conf

to set a new domain:    echo “domain geek.local” > /etc/resolv.conf

Viewing and Setting your Resolv.Conf

Setting up your Network Settings:

Now normally, in a real life situation you’d have a Static IP for your DNS server (this isnt a recommendation this is a MUST). However, personally i’m setting this up on a Vritual Machine, which means i have to switch between  connecting the server to my REAL network and to my virtual network. What does this mean for us? We basically need to be a wizzz at changing your network settings on the fly!

Here’s the quick Run down:

Viewing your Current Network Settings:

ifconfig -a

This will basically show you all your currently set network settings. Dont get confused by the “lo” interface. That’s the local loop interface in Linux.

Viewing your Network configurations

To set a static IP on your network interface:

ifconfig <interfacename> <ip-address> netmask <network-mask/subnet mask>

eg. ifconfig eth0 netmask

Setting a Static IP for a selected Network Interface

To get IP settings automatically from a DHCP server

dhclient <interface-name>

e.g. dhclient eth0

Getting down Network Configuration settings from a DHCP server

Installing BIND9 and other Necessary Tools

1. Make sure your server is connected to the internet

2. sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get update

3. sudo apt-get install bind9 dnsutils

Installing BIND9 & DNSUTILS

If everything went well, you should see this message:


Setting up Forward-look-up files and reverse look-up files will be posted shortly!

Ok so your a Newbie/Noob/beginner/amature in the linux scene.

Ok so you got your OS installed with the step by step wizard and now you try to install your Programs.

See Installing Programs in Linux.

But then ! you get your first error message. Trust me, being a kind of new guy to linux my self i KNOW how frustrating it is to get your programs installed in linux with it’s rather un-understandable error messages.

A very common error most people get when trying to install a new program in the NEW linux installation is

bash: make: command not found

Ok you can stop your uncontrollable fit form anger form this point on wards. 🙂

Because, Well it’s actually a simple error that can be fixed easily!


I dont know about you guys , but as soon as I installed my fresh new Ubuntu 8.10 intrepid ibex release on my desktop computer, the first problem i faced was how to share files between linux and my windows Vista laptop! I went and checked in linux, there was no “Share” button in the folder properties pane.

So After doing a bit of reading i came to understand that in order to share files between Windows and Linux Computers you have to install a Program(deamon) called samba!

It’s actually quite easy ! so lets get started!


Ok here’s a Quick Guide on How to Install and get Compiz Up and Running On Your New Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex Machine!

STEP 1 (Graphics Cards) – Installing Graphics Card Drivers, Activating Them…

Ok First off we need to get your Graphics cards up and Running! Install Graphics Card drivers in Linux and Activate them! It’s really not that hard now with the New ubuntu release

1. Goto Add/Remove Applications from yours Applications Menu

2. Searching :

2.1 If You have an ATI Card Search for “ATI graphics”

Tick The Packages

  • ATI Binary Driver
  • ATI Catalyst Control Center

Click Apply Changes!

2.1 If You Have an Nvidia Card Search For “Nvidia”

Tick the Packages

  • Hardware drivers
  • Nvidia X Server Settings
  • Nvidia binary driver (version 177 driver)
  • NTv Tv Out

Click Apply Changes!

This step should install your Graphics Drivers Without any problems….

3. Autharizing Drivers

After You install the drivers you have to enable them for them to be used by Ubuntu.. This can be done very Easily!

Goto System>Administration>Hardware Drivers

From There, If Your Using an Nvidia Card Select the “Nvidia Accelerated Graphics Driver (Version 177) and click Activate

If your Using an ATI card, Select the ATi Driver and Click Activate!

STEP 2 Installing Compiz!- Downloading and installing compiz,

1. Goto Applications> Add/Remove Applications

2. Search For “Compiz”

3. Tick

  • Advanced Desktop Effects Settings (ccsm)
  • Compiz Fusion Icon
  • Screenlets (Optional)

4. Click Apply Changes!

Side Note : You Can Make Compiz Start Automatically With Ubuntu on Start up Through the Compiz Fusion Icon Program…..

Hmmm I recently migrated my desktop Completely From Windows XP to Ubuntu Linux 8.10 Intrepid Ibex… And here are some softwares i found i MUST install on Ubuntu To use productively…

MUST HAVE SOFTWARE IN LINUX!  For Ubuntu (8.10 Intrepid Ibex)

Mozilla Thunder Bird


O.K! I mean do i even have to explain my self?? i mean what could be better than ThunderBird Right!? Ok i am a self acclaimed Mozilla fan boy, But when it comes to